Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions

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Sample Chapter: Chapter 1

Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions

SKU# 9781620700983

Assessment and Management

Author: Se Won Lee MD

$110.00
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    Description

    Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions: Assessment and Management is a practical guide to diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions in clinical practice. More comprehensive than a handbook, yet more clinically-focused than a desk reference, this volume is a one-stop guide for clinicians who deal with musculoskeletal disorders and injuries in the practice setting.

    The book is organized by anatomic region, from neck to toe, and written in outline format. Each chapter concisely presents the basic knowledge that every practitioner needs to have at the ready in the outpatient clinical context. Taking a uniform approach based on isolating symptoms and the location of the pain, the book presents a uniquely practical template for nonoperative management of a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal problems. All chapters include epidemiology, anatomy, biomechanics, physical examination, diagnostic studies, and treatment. Flowcharts for differential diagnosis and initial management are provided for chief complaints. Helpful tables, lists, and over 150 anatomic illustrations supplement the text throughout. Given the increasing importance of ultrasound in clinical decision-making at the point of care, a mini-atlas of normal and abnormal findings for common injuries is presented as part of the imaging work-up.

    Designed to help busy practitioners diagnose and treat musculoskeletal disorders in the clinic or office, this book is an essential resource for physicians in rehabilitation and sports medicine, primary care, orthopedics, and other health care professionals who work in outpatient settings.

    KEY FEATURES

    • Provides a consistent approach to managing common musculoskeletal conditions based on location of pain
    • Bulleted format and clear heading structure make it easy to find information
    • More than 30 flowcharts map out differential diagnosis, diagnostic approach, and initial management strategy for each complaint
    • Packed with useful tables, lists, and over 150 illustrations of surface anatomy
    • Integrates musculoskeletal ultrasound into the imaging workup, with over 40 normal and abnormal scans to aid in recognizing signature pathologies at the point of care
    • Purchase includes access to the fully-searchable downloadable e-book with image bank

    Product Details

    • Publication Date December 22, 2016
    • Page Count 488
    • Product Form Paperback / softback
    • ISBN 13 9781620700983
    • EISBN

    Table of Contents

    Contents

    Abbreviations

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    1. APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH A MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEM

    History and Physical Examination

    Chief Complaint

    Neurological Impairment

    Other History

    Past Medical History (Limited to MSK Problems)

    Review of Systems

    Other MSK Symptoms

    Physical Examination

    Provocative Test

    Clinically Oriented Anatomy

    Tendon and Ligament

    Muscle and Fascia

    Bursa

    Bone and Joint

    Nervous System

    Biomechanics

    Introduction

    Clinical Application

    Gait Cycle

    Gait Dysfunction

    Workup

    MSK Imaging

    Radiographs

    Advanced Imaging

    Scanning Protocol Modified From AIUM Protocol

    Other Workup: Laboratory Investigation

    Treatment

    Patient Education

    Pharmacologic Management

    Local Intervention

    Physical and Occupational Therapy

    Orthoses

    Treatment Based on Different Anatomical Pathologies

    References

    2. NECK

    Epidemiology of Neck Pain

    Neck Pain in the General Population

    Neck Pain in Athletes

    Neck Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    Unusual Causes of Neck Pain

    Neurological Symptoms Associated With Neck Pain

    Anatomy

    Regional Anatomy

    Spine Complex (Bone and Joint)

    Ligament

    Nerve: Root and Plexus

    Muscle

    Fascia

    Blood Supply

    Biomechanics

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Neurologic Examination and Special Examination

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    MRI

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonagraphy

    CT Scan

    Electromyography (EMG)

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Nerve and Spinal Cord Pathology

    Cervical Radiculopathy

    Noncompressive Radiculopathy

    C5 (Nerve Root) Palsy

    Greater Occipital Neuralgia

    Supraclavicular Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

    Cervical Myelopathy

    Cervical Cord Neurapraxia

    Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL)

    Syringomyelia

    Chiari Malformation

    Drop Head Syndrome

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    Cervical Facet Pathology

    Whiplash-Associated Injury

    Degenerative Disc Disease

    Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Cervical Spine Disorder in Down Syndrome

    Klippel–Feil Anomaly

    Fracture

    Metastatic Cervical Spine Tumor

    Muscle and Ligament Pathology

    Cervical Strain/Sprain

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    References

    3. SHOULDER

    Epidemiology of Shoulder Pain

    Shoulder Pain in the General Population

    Shoulder Pain in Athletes

    Shoulder Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) Causes of Shoulder Pain Based on Location

    Neuropathic Causes of Shoulder Pain

    Extrinsic Causes of Shoulder Pain

    Neurological Symptoms

    Snapping Shoulder

    Shoulder Instability

    Anatomy

    Bone, Joint, and Ligament

    Nerve

    Bursa

    Muscle

    Biomechanics

    Shoulder Movement

    Subacromial Impingement

    Subcoracoid Impingement: Roller Wringer Effect

    Suprascapular Nerve Traction With Scapula Position

    Biomechanics of Throwing

    Shoulder Stability

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Range of Motion

    Strength of Rotator Cuff Muscles

    Special Tests

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography

    MRI/MRA

    CT Scan

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Tendon and Bursa Pathology

    Impingement Syndrome

    Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy and Tear

    Calcific Tendinopathy

    Biceps Long-Head Tendon Pathologies

    Pectoralis Muscle Strain and Tear

    Joint and Bone Pathology

    AC Joint Sprain and Injury

    AC Osteoarthritis

    Distal Clavicle Osteolysis

    Glenohumeral Joint Pathologies

    Shoulder Osteoarthritis

    Shoulder Instability

    Multidirectional Instability

    SLAP (Superior Labral Anteroposterior) Lesion

    Bennett Lesion

    Rheumatologic Disease

    Infectious Pathology

    Osteonecrosis of the Humeral Head

    Little League Shoulder

    Sternoclavicular (SC) Sprain/Injury

    SC Osteoarthritis

    Fracture

    Neuropathy and Vascular Dysfunction

    Brachial Amyotrophy (Parsonage Turner Syndrome)

    Cervical Radiculopathy

    Stinger Syndrome (Burner)

    Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS)

    Effort Thrombosis (Paget–Schroetter Syndrome)

    Axillary Artery Occlusion

    Suprascapular Neuropathy

    Quadrilateral Space Syndrome

    References

    4. ELBOW

    Epidemiology of Elbow Pain

    Elbow Pain in the General Population

    Elbow Pain in Athletes

    Elbow Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    Elbow Instability

    Snapping Elbow

    Stiffness

    Anatomy

    Bone and Joint

    Ligament

    Nerve

    Muscle

    Biomechanics

    Kinetic and Kinematics

    Elbow Stability

    Elbow Function in ADL

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Range of Motion

    Special Tests

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography

    MRI/MRA

    CT Scan

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Tendon, Ligament, and Bursa Pathology

    Lateral Epicondylitis

    Lateral Collateral Ligament Sprain

    Medial Epicondylitis

    Little League Elbow

    Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Injury

    Valgus Extension Overload Syndrome (Posteromedial Impingement)

    Distal Biceps Tendinopathy/Tear

    Bicipitoradial Bursitis

    Triceps Tendinopathy and Tear

    Olecranon Bursitis

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    Osteoarthritis

    Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow (Capitellum)

    Posterior Impingement of the Elbow

    Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Myositis Ossificans

    Fracture

    Elbow Dislocation

    Neuropathy

    Ulnar Neuropathy

    Radial Tunnel Syndrome

    Posterior Antebrachial Cutaneous Neuropathy

    Median Neuropathy at Elbow

    Other Nerves

    References

    5. WRIST AND HAND

    Epidemiology of Wrist and Hand Pain

    Wrist and Hand Pain in the General Population

    Wrist and Hand Pain in Athletes

    Wrist and Hand Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    MSK Causes of Wrist and Hand Pain Based on Location

    Neuropathic Causes of Wrist and Hand Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of Finger/Wrist Drop

    Snapping

    Anatomy

    Bone, Joint, and Ligament

    Nerve

    Muscle

    No Man’s Land

    Biomechanics

    Forearm Movement and RU Joint

    ROM of Wrist and Hand

    Proximal Carpal Movements

    Wrist Stability

    Biomechanics of Hand

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Special Tests of Wrist and Hand

    Special Examination of Hand (Finger)

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography

    MRI/MRA

    CT Scan

    Electromyography (EMG)

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Tendon and Ligament Pathology

    Wrist Extensor Tendon Disorders

    Wrist Flexor Tendon Disorders

    Trigger Fingers

    Retinacular Cyst

    Dupuytren’s Disease

    Gamekeeper’s (Skier’s) Thumb and Stener’s Lesion

    Finger Sprain and Strain

    Volar Plate Injury

    Central Slip Extensor Injury

    Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

    Anterior Interosseous Neuropathy

    Ulnar Neuropathy at Wrist

    Superficial Radial Neuropathy

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    First Carpometacarpal (CMC) Osteoarthritis (Trapeziometacarpal)

    Osteoarthritis of the Wrist

    Pisotriquetral (PT) Arthritis/Instability

    Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Wrist and Hand

    Ligament Sprain and Instability

    Ganglion Cyst

    Carpal Boss

    Tumor

    Fracture

    Other Pathology

    Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

    References

    6. BACK

    Epidemiology of Back Pain

    Back Pain in the General Population

    Back Pain in Children

    Back Pain in Athletes

    Back Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    Working Definition of Low Back

    Differential Diagnosis Based on Mode of Onset

    Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Spine Deformity

    Differential Diagnosis of Severe Back Spasm

    Differential Diagnoses of Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction Related to Spine Pathologies

    Differential Diagnosis of Chest Wall Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of Buttock Pain

    Anatomy

    Bone and Joint

    Nerve

    Artery

    Muscle

    Biomechanics

    Lumbar Spine Biomechanics

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Neurological and Other Examination

    Red Flags

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    CT Scan

    MRI

    Serologic Tests

    Electromyography (EMG)

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Back Pain

    Nerve and Spinal Cord Pathology

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    Muscle and Ligament Pathology

    Chest Wall Pain

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    Nerve Pathologies

    Muscle Strain

    Buttock Pain

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    Tendon and Bursa Pathology

    Ischiogluteal Bursitis

    Neuropathy

    Miscellaneous Pathology

    References

    7. HIP AND THIGH

    Epidemiology of Hip Pain

    Hip Pain in the General Population

    Hip Pain in Children

    Hip Pain in Athletes

    Hip Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    Differential Diagnosis of Hip Pain Based on Location

    Snapping Hip (Coxa Saltans)

    Differential Diagnosis of Groin Mass

    Differential Diagnosis of Hip Instability

    Anatomy

    Bone and Joint

    Ligament

    Nerve

    Muscle

    Biomechanics

    Kinematic and Kinetic

    Hip Stability

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Range of Motion

    Special Examination

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography

    MRI/MRA

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Joint and Bone Pathology

    OA of Hip

    Labral Tear

    Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Avascular Necrosis of Hip

    Stress Fracture

    Osteitis Pubis

    Avulsion Fracture and Apophyseal Injuries

    Hip Pointer

    Hip Dislocation

    Tumor or Tumorlike Lesion

    Bursitis and Tendinopathy

    Lateral Hip

    Groin

    Neuropathy

    Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

    Anterior Femoral Cutaneous Neuralgia

    Obturator Neuropathy

    Border Nerve Syndrome (Ilioinguinal, Iliohypogastric, and Genitofemoral Nerves)

    Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Neuropathy

    Other Pathology

    Myositis Ossificans

    Transient Osteoporosis

    Pediatric Hip Pathology

    Individual Conditions

    Transient Synovitis or Irritable Hip

    References

    8. KNEE

    Epidemiology of Knee Pain

    Knee Pain in the General Population

    Knee Pain in Athletes

    Knee Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    MSK (Musculoskeletal) Causes of Knee Pain Based on Location

    Neuropathic Causes of Knee and Leg Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of Knee Swelling

    Differential Diagnosis of Subjective Knee Instability

    Differential Diagnosis of Painful Knee Snapping

    Anatomy

    Bone and Joint

    Ligament and Meniscus

    Nerve

    Biomechanics

    Kinematic and Kinetic

    Knee Stability

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Range of Motion

    Special Examination

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography

    MRI

    MR and CT Arthrography

    Management

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Intra-Articular Structures

    Bone and Joint Pathology

    Inflammatory Arthropathy

    Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee

    Proximal Tibiofibular Sprain and Instability

    Meniscus Pathology

    Ligament Injury

    Plica Syndrome

    Extra-Articular Structures (Bursa, Tendon, Ligament Pathology)

    Medial Knee Pathology

    Lateral Knee Pathology

    Anterior Knee Pathology

    Posterior Knee Pathology

    Neuropathy

    Saphenous Neuropathy; Gonalgia Paresthetica

    Peroneal Neuropathy

    References

    9. LEG

    Epidemiology of Leg Pain

    Leg Pain in the General Population

    Leg Pain in Athletes

    Differential Diagnosis

    Differential Diagnoses Based on Location of Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of Calf Pain and Cramps

    Differential Diagnosis of Leg Swelling

    Differential Diagnosis of Atrophy and Pseudohypertrophy

    Differential Diagnosis of Common Tibial Deformity

    Other History to Ask

    Anatomy

    Cross-Sectional Anatomy

    Bones

    Muscles

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Neurological Examination

    Evaluation of Foot for Pes Planus (Overpronation) and Pes Cavus (With Supination)

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    MRI

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography (US)

    CT Scan

    Vascular Study and Other Tests

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Musculoskeletal Pathology

    Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome

    Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)

    Stress Fracture (of Tibia)

    Medial Gastrocnemius Tear

    Plantaris Tendon and Soleus Muscle Tear

    Neuropathy

    Superficial Peroneal Neuropathy

    Tibial Neuropathy—Soleal Sling Syndrome

    Saphenous Neuritis

    Lateral Sural Cutaneous Neuropathy

    Vascular Pathology

    Arterial Disease

    Venous Disease

    Other Pathology

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Statin Myopathy

    References

    10. ANKLE ANKLE AND FOOT

    Epidemiology of Ankle and Foot Pain

    Foot and Ankle Pain in the General Population

    Foot and Ankle Pain in Athletes

    Foot and Ankle Pain at Work

    Differential Diagnosis

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) Causes of Foot and Ankle Pain Based on Location

    Differential Diagnosis of MSK Hindfoot and Ankle Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of MSK Midfoot Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of MSK Forefoot Pain

    Neuropathic Causes of Foot and Ankle Pain Based on Location

    Other Causes of Severe (Disabling) Foot Pain

    Common Causes of Pes Cavus (High Arch Foot)

    Differential Diagnosis of Pes Planus (Flat Foot, Normal up to 6 Years)

    Differential Diagnosis of Ankle Equinus

    Differential Diagnosis of Ankle Instability

    Differential Diagnosis of Snapping Ankle

    Lateralization of Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of Neuropathic Ankle and Foot Pain

    Anatomy

    Bone and Joint

    Ligament

    Retinaculum

    Nerve

    Muscle

    Biomechanics

    Kinetic and Kinematic

    Ankle and Foot in Gait

    Foot Alignment and Deformity

    Physical Examination

    Inspection

    Palpation

    Range of Motion

    Special Tests

    Diagnostic Studies

    Plain Radiographs

    Point-of-Care Ultrasonography

    MRI

    CT Scan

    Treatment

    Nonoperative Management

    Surgery

    Ankle and Hindfoot

    Ligament, Tendon, and Bursa Pathology

    Bone and Joint

    Forefoot, Midfoot, and Toes

    Common Medial Forefoot and Toe Pathologies

    Toe Deformity and Fracture

    Common Skin Lesion

    Common Midfoot Pathologies

    Neuropathy

    Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Tibial Nerve Entrapment Neuropathy at Ankle)

    Baxter’s Neuropathy (Inferior Calcaneal Neuropathy, 1st Branch of Lateral Plantar Neuropathy)

    Jogger’s Foot (Medial Plantar Neuropathy)

    Morton’s Interdigital Neuralgia

    Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Deep Peroneal Nerve Entrapment Neuropathy)

    Superficial Peroneal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

    Saphenous Mononeuropathy

    Sural Mononeuropathy

    Medial Hallucal Neuropathy

    References

    11. OTHER PAIN SYNDROMES

    Epidemiology

    Epidemiology of Widespread Pain

    Epidemiology of Cancer Pain

    Epidemiology of Common Neuropathic Pain Conditions

    Differential Diagnosis

    Generalized Musculoskeletal Pain

    Differential Diagnosis of Diffuse Neuropathic Pain

    Physical Examination

    Examination for Neuropathic Pain

    Diagnostic Studies

    Serologic Tests

    Electrodiagnosis

    Other Diagnostic Tests

    Imaging Tests

    Generalized Musculoskeletal Pain

    Fibromyalgia

    Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR)

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Pain Related to Cancer

    Bony Pain Related to Tumor

    Muscle and Soft Tissue Pain

    Joint Disorders/Synovitis (Neoplastic or Paraneoplastic)

    Neuropathic Pain Related to Tumor

    Paraneoplastic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Radiation Plexopathy

    Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Polyradiculopathy

    Chronic Radiation Myelopathy

    Neuropathic Pain

    Central Poststroke Pain Syndrome (Thalamic Pain)

    Spinal Cord Injury–Related Pain Syndrome

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Small Fiber Neuropathy

    Erythromelalgia

    References

    Index